Mortar is a binding material to construct any structure. It is prepared with the help of different binding materials like lime, cement, etc with sand, ash, with a suitable proportion of water in it. The various types of mortar used in the construction of engineering structures are classified into the following types.
Types of Mortar
- Based on Bulk Density
- Based on Materials Used
A) Based on Bulk Density
According to the bulk density of mortar in dry. There are two types of mortars.
1) Heavy Mortar
The mortar having bulk density equals to or greater than 1500 kg/m3 is known as heavy mortar.
2) Light Weight mortar
The mortar having bulk density less than 15oo kg/m3 is known as light weight mortar.
.B) Based on Materials Used
- Cement Mortar
- Lime Mortar
- Gauged Mortar
- Light weight mortar
- Fire Resistance Mortar
- Mud Mortar
Now let us discuss one by one.
1) Cement Mortar
It is prepared by mixing sand, cement with water by calculating according to the required strength.
Generally, It is mixed in propertion like one part of cement and two to eight part of sand in the mortar.
The prepared mortar should be used in construction work before 30 minutes of mixing, otherwise, it will not get proper strength.
Uses of Cement Mortar
This types of mortar is used for the structure which require more strength.
This mortar is used for irrigation structures like canals, dams, deep foundations, and also for the final finishing of walls like pointing and plastering.
2) Lime Mortar
The mortar prepared by mixing lime with sand or surkhi, along with water in fixed proportion is known as lime mortar.
If sand is not mixed with lime. The only Surkhi has used, then the mortar is called surkhi mortar.
An equal amount of surkhi and sand should be added to prepare lime mortar if both are added.
This mortar gives more strength than cement mortar and acts better in water proof coat.
Lime mortar are divided into the following types, depending upon the types of lime used in their propertion.
2.A) Non-hydraulic lime mortar:-
Class “C” mortar is used to prepare non-hydraulic mortar.
The proportion of one part lime and one to three part sand is used to prepare mortar.
Lime should be well slaked before mixing to prepare mortar.
Sand are used more or in equal amount than surkhi while preparing lime mortar.
Lime mortar should be used as soon as possible after mixing sand, surkhi with lime and water. Otherwise it sets even in dry condition by observing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.
Uses of Lime mortar
- It is used for plastering the wall.
- It is used as points on the wall.
- It is used to stabilize the ground to prevent moisture.
2.B) Hydroulic lime mortar
Class “A” lime or class “B” lime is used to prepare this mortar.
In this mortar one part hydraulic lime is mixed with two to three part of sand.
The mortar should be used within one hour of mixing materials.
Uses of Hydraulic mortar
This types of mortar is used generally for structure below ground level like foundation.
It is also used for exterior or interior covering of wall.
3) Black Mortar
This mortar is made up of ash or cinder in the place of sand and surkhi.
Black mortar is called so, because its color is black in appearance.
One part of lime is mixed with three part of ash to prepare black mortar.
Uses of Black Mortar
It is used to cover the wall as pointing and plastering.
This types of mortar is also used for DPC (Damp Proof Course)
4) Gauged Mortar
This mortar prepared by combination of cement and lime with sand and water in suitable proportion.
Non-hydraulic, semi-hydraulic and hydrated lime are used to prepare this mortar.
One part of cement, three part of lime and two to twelve part of sand are used to prepare this mortar.
To get early strength of mortar and achieve better hydraulicity cement is added to mortar
After mixing the materials to prepare this mortar, It should be used within two hour to get proper strength.
Uses of Gauged Mortar
It is used at the joining of two structure.
It is used for heat insulator by plastering and coating the wall.
5) Light weight mortar
This mortar is prepared by mixing lightweight materials like sawdust, wood shaving, wood powder with cement mortar or lime mortar.
Uses of Light weight mortar
This types of mortar are generally used for sound proof and heat proof materials.
6) Fire Resistance Mortar
Fire resistance mortar is prepared by mixing luminous cement and finely crushed fire brick in required amount with water.
One part of luminous cement and two-part of finely crushed fire bricks are mixed to prepare this mortar.
Uses of fire resistance Mortar
As its name, it is used as a fire resisting materials in lining of furnace, ovens, etc.
7) Mud Mortar
It is prepared by mixing clayey soil with water.
Mixing mortar It should be free from dust, grass and pebbles.
This mortar is cheap in cost but weak in strength.
Uses of mud mortar
These types of mortar are not used for civil engineering structures. But it is generally used in rural areas for plastering the wall and filling gaps between the walls.
I hope this article on Types of Mortar” remains helpful for you.
Happy Learning – Civil Concept
Civil Engineer – Ranjeet Sahani