The oldest mode of travel is the footpath. Animals were also used to transport humans & materials.
The invention of wheels brought up the necessity of providing hard surfaces for these wheeled vehicles to move on. Romans are considered to be the initiator in road construction.
Historical development of road construction with Time
- Roman Road
- Tresagut construction
- Telford construction
- Macadam construction
1) Roman roads
Roman roads were constructed during the period of roman civil. These roads were built of stone blocks of considerable thickness. These roads were mostly constructed straight.
Some features of roman roads
- Regardless of gradients
- Soft soil was excavated & removed till hard stratum clay
- Total thickness 0.75 to 1.2m, even for very
- Roads were very costly.
2) Tresagut construction
- An improved method of construction in France. (1964 AD)
- The lesser thickness of around 30 cm.
- Special consideration to subgrade moisture condition & drainage of surface water.
3) Telford construction:- (1803 in London)
- The width of the road is generally adopted around 9 m.
- Large foundation stones, 17 cm at the edge & 22 cm at the center with increasing size from edge to center.
- A 4 cm thick gravel surfacing was laid on top with a cross slope of 1 in 45.
- Telford also provides cross drains at an interval of about 90 m
4) Macadam construction
- An entirely new method of construction as compared to all the previous methods.
- The subgrade was compacted & prepared with a cross slope of 1:36
- Instead of placing large foundation stones, small size broken stones shall be spread over the prepared subgrade & compacted.
- Similarly, next layer of pavement also was constructed above this layer with small broken stones.
- Change in load dispersion characteristics.
- Pavement surface with a cross slope of 1:36 for drainage of surface water.
I hope this article on the “historical development of road construction” remains helpful for you.
Happy Learning – Civil Concept