Foundation Footing Detail Drawings provide typical design and construction details of footing in a building foundation. Footing plays a significant role as a structural member in a building. Footing carries all load of the structure and transfers it to the soil.
So, the foundation footing must be designed strong enough to bear all load of the structure and make remains stable.
Foundation Footing Detail Drawings are prepared by a structural engineer who is specialized in concrete and reinforcement to increase the stability and safety of the structure.
Components of Foundation Footing Detail Drawings
The different components of foundation footing detail drawings are given below.
- Size and shape of footing
- Depth of Footing
- Concrete detailed information
- Reinforcement Detail
- Position of footing
- Elevation of Footing
- Section of Footing
a) Size and shape of footing: The drawing show the aspects, shape, and size of the footing. The shape and size of the footing depend on the load and load-bearing capacity of the soil.
b) Depth of Footing: The drawings determine the depth at which the footings are to be provided. The depth of footing increases the punching resistance of footing due to load.
c) Concrete detailed information: This drawing includes details about the type of concrete mix used for footings. It shows the cover blocks to be used in footing. This includes information on its strength as well as any need for waterproofing or additional additives.
d) Reinforcement Detail: These drawings provide details about footing-integrated reinforcement, usually in the form of rebar. It shows the position, size, centerline, development length, dowel bars, etc.
e) Position of footing: The drawings show the exact point or location of the footing according to the structure or design. The position of footing is very important and critical for construction. The misplaced footing may decrease the strength and stability of the structure.
Further, Foundation Footing Detail Drawings include the elevation, section, and plan to be clear about its appearance from different sides as well as top views.
f) Elevation of Footing: The elevation of footing show all side view f the footing. It may also include dimensions, shape, and location of reinforcement.
g) Section of Footing: This drawing shows a cross-sectional view of a footing with its depth, concrete characteristics, and reinforcement arrangement. The section of the footing is extracted by cutting the footing from any required plan.
Foundation footing detail drawings are prepared by a structural engineer. They guide the contractors and construction team to implement the drawing on-site accurately. They design any foundation footing of the structure to be safe, sustainable, and economical as much as possible.
Some Types of Footing in Foundation footing detail drawings
1) Non-Eccentric Footing
- This type of column is provided if there is sufficient land around all sides of the footing.
- The load is applied exactly at the center of the footing.
- Reinforcement is provided generally symmetrically on all sides of the footing.
2) Eccentric Footing
- This type of column is provided if there is not sufficient land around any side of the footing.
- The load is not applied exactly at the center of the footing.
- Reinforcement is not provided symmetrically on all sides of the footing.
3) Combined Footing
- This type of column is provided if the distance between two columns is very less.
- It is provided if the loading on the column is more.
- Reinforcement is generally provided symmetrically on both sides of the footing.
4) Lapping Detail
- The lap detail drawing shows the detail of the lapping of rebar in the column, slab, beam, and footing.
- Lapping in reinforcement is done if there is insufficient rebar along the required length.
- Lapping in rebar should be provided by making joggle and in an alternate way.
5) Connection of Plinth Beam and Foundation Beam
The drawing below shows the detailed reinforcement of the footing connecting the base beam as well as the plinth beam. The base beam is the beam connecting footing below the ground while the plinth beam is the beam above the ground level.
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Procedure for construction of foundation
- Trench the area where the foundation is to be placed.
- Provide soling of bricks or stone according to availability of materials and design and compact with a rammer.
- Now, apply PCC of 150 mm to 200 mm on the trenched area.
- Put the reinforcement according to design and place the concrete for the footing.
- Compact the concrete with the help of a vibrator.
- Let it dry for 10 hours and cure it for more than 10 days to get proper strength.