Air, water, food, heat, light, and water are three essential requirements of human existence. The human can survive without food, shelter, and clothes for several days but can not without water. So water is the most important gift for survival.
Water should be safe and healthy for drinking. So, there are different processes to get safe drinking water from sources of water like rivers, infiltration, etc.
Objective of water supply system
- To deliver safe wholesome water to the consumer with quality, quantity, pressure, and at low cost.
- To make water available within easy reach of consumers.
- To make adequate provisions for emergencies like fire fighting, festivals, meetings, etc.
- To reduce environmental pollution and unemployment.
- To protect from water born disease.
- To improve the economic condition of the locality and maintain better sanitation.
Components of water supply system
Source of water > Intake > Treatment work > Reservoir >Distribution system > Consumer taps
1) Source of water
- Surface Source (River, Lake, Pond, Reservoir)
- Subsurface Source (Infiltration gallery, infiltration wells, Spring, Boreholes, dug wells)
2) Treatment works
- Storage Reservoir
- Flood control Reservoir
- Multipurpose Reservoir
- Distribution Reservoir
- Surface Reservoir
- Elevated Reservoir
4) Distribution System
- Dead end System
- Radial System
- Grid Iron System
- Ring System
The various components of water supply System are described below:-
1) Source of water
The place from where water is obtained is called the source of water. The source must be reliable and have a minimum number of impurities. It should have more charge than that of demand. The source may be surface or sub-surface.
- An intake collects the water from the source and feeds it to the transmission line.
- An intake should allow continuous abstraction of design flow from the source.
- The type of intake used in the water scheme depends upon the type of source
- The basic function of intake are:-
- To ensure required water and reduce sediment entry.
- To check trash and debris entry along with water entering and prevent the entry of ice.
- To collect water from the source and feed it to the transmission line.
- A pump is a lifting device commonly required to lift water from a source which is operated with the help of energy.
- It is essential when the area to be supplied is located at a higher elevation than that of the source of supply.
4) Collection chamber
- If the water demand does not meet by a single source, it may be required. This prevents the backflow of water from one source to another.
- It is used to collect water from more than one source.
- It settles course materials contained in river or spring water.
5) Transmissions Mains
- For the conveyance of water from the source to the treatment plant, different types of conduct are used like open channels, aqueducts, pipelines, etc. is known as transmission mains.
- Water from the transmission main is not given to users.
6) Interruption Chamber (IC)
The chamber which is provided in the transmission lines to prevent bursting pipes due to excessive pressure is known as an interruption chamber. Hence, the function of this chamber is to release high pressure or convert it into atmospheric pressure forming the new statics water level.
Usually, It is provided in gravity water supply systems in rural areas when the dynamic head in the pipeline exceeds 60 meters.
7) Treatment / Purification
The raw water contains various types of impurities to remove those impurities which is harmful to human and other living beings health water treatment is done.
The objective of water treatment is to provide and maintain water that is hygienically safe, palatable, and aesthetically attractive in an economic manner.
It includes –
It is necessary to balance the variation of demand and to reserve water. Depending upon the purpose of use, there are three types of reservoirs.
a) Clear water Reservoir – For storing treated water.
b) Balancing Reservoir – For equalization or to address fluctuation of demand.
c) Service reservoir – For equalizes the hourly fluctuation and stores the water for break down reserve and fire reserve as for firefighting.
9) Control Valves
They are provided in the pipelines to control and regulate the flow of water. For example, Air valves, Gate valves, and Reflux valves.
10) Distribution System
- After the treatment of water, it is distributed to the targeted community for domestic, industrial, commercial, and public uses by the means of a pipe network is known as the distribution system.
- It is designed for peak flow.
- The method of the distribution system is guided by the road network of the city.
11) Break Pressure Tank (BPT)
- A small tank constructed in a rural gravity water supply specifically built to break the hydrostatic pressure is called a break pressure tank.
- It prevents the pipe from bursting due to excessive pressure.
- The main function of a Break Pressure Tank is releasing force into atmospheric pressure.
12) Public stand post
- This is the last and most frequently used component of the water supply system.
- In rural areas, consumers collect water from public stand posts to meet their house demand.
- If people cannot afford private connections in the rural area and scattered houses in the area a stand post serves 8 to 10 households.
I hope this article “Components of Water supply System” remains helpful for you.