What are the sources of surface water?

The water which is found on the surface of the earth is known as surface water and the source containing (device) the surface water is surface sources. River, stream, ponds, etc are surface sources of water.


  • It starts from the run-off and ends at the ocean/reservoir.
  • It is formed by the combination of the stream and springs, etc.
  • It may be snow-fed, rain-fed, or both.


  • It starts from run-off and ends in the river.
  • Discharge is more in rainy seasons and either zero or less discharge in the dry season.
  • Water from the stream is good in quality.


  • A natural basin with an impervious bed in the mountain region is known as a lake.
  • It collects water from springs, rain, stream, etc.
  • The quality of water mainly depends upon the characteristics of the catchment.


  • A naturally depressed land or artificially excavated land filled with water is called a pond.
  • It is found in mountains, hills,s and plain areas of Nepal.
  • It is constructed for swimming, fish farming, and irrigation purposes.

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