Types of bonds in brick masonry

All Types of bonds in brick masonry- Different parts of bricks with Picture

To know the types of bonds in brick masonry in the wall clearly, you must have to know the different parts of bricks.

The name of different parts of brick will make you easy to understand and remember the different types of bonds in brickwork.

So at first let us learn some definitions related to bonds In bricks. i.e parts of bricks. For a clear understanding keep watch on the image, I have drawn below. 

Different parts of bricks

parts of bricks
1) Stretcher

This is a brick laid with its length parallel to the face or direction of the wall.

2) Header

This is a brick laid with its breadth or width parallel to the face or direction of the wall.

3) Arrises

The edges formed by the intersection of plane surfaces of brick are called the arrises and they should be sharp square and free from damage.

4) Bed

The lower surface of the brick when laid nat is known as a bed.

5) Perpends

The vertical joints separating the bricks in either length or cross directions are known as perpends and for a good bond, the perpends in alternate courses should vertically one above the other.

6) Lap

The horizontal distance between the vertical joints in successive courses is termed as lap and for a good bond, it should be one-fourth of the length of a brick.

7) Closer

A piece of brick which is used to close up the bond at the end of brick courses is known as closer and it helps in preventing the joints of successive courses to come in a vertical line.

Generally, the closer is not specially molded, but it is prepared by the mason with the edge of the trowel. Queen closer and king closer are generally used. 

8) Bat

These are the broken piece of bricks with respect to the length, half-bat, and three by four bat are generally used for bonds in bricks.

9) Frog

A frog is a mark of depth above 10 mm to 20 mm which is placed on the face of a brick to form a key for holding the mortar.

On frogs, the wire cut bricks are avoided. Generally, brick is provided frogs on both faces. But bricks made with hand has only one frog.

Types of bonds in brick masonry

1) Stretcher bond

Stretcher bond is the one in which all the bricks are laid as stretchers on the faces wall. The length of the bricks is thus along the direction of the wall.

This pattern is used only for those walls which have a thickness of half brick (i.e. 5″ wall). These types of bonds are used as a partition wall and impossible to provide if the thickness is more like 10″ or 15″ (Inches).

Stretcher bond

2) Header bond

Header bond is the one in which all the bricks are laid as a header on the faces of the wall. The width of the bricks is thus along the direction of the wall.

These types of bonds are used when the thickness of the wall is equal to one brick.

types of bonds in brick masonry-Header bond

3) English bond

This is the most commonly used bond, for all wall thicknesses. This bond is considered to be the strongest.

The band consists of alternate courses of headers and stretchers. In this bond, the vertical joint of the header courses come over each other.

types of bonds in brick masonry-English bond

4) Flemish bond

The bond has an alternate header and stretcher combination is known as Flemish bond. Every next course starts with a header at the quoin header.

To form face lap Quoin closer are placed next to the quoin header in every other course.

Every header is centrally supported over the stretcher bond. This type of bond can further be classified as a single Flemish bond and a double Flemish bond.

types of bonds in brick masonry-Flemish Bond

5) English cross bonds

This is the modification of English bond, used to improve the appearance of the wall. This bond combines the requirement of beauty and strength.

Special features of english cross bonds

Alternate courses of headers and stretchers are provided as in English bond.

Quoin closers are placed just after quoin headers

A header is introduced next to the quoin stretchers in every alternate stretcher courses.

6) Dutch bonds

This is another modified form of English bond. The corner of the wall elongated in this types of bond.

Special features of Dutch bond

Alternate courses of headers and stretchers are provided as in English bond.

Every stretcher course starts at the quoin with a three-quarter bat.  The header is placed always just next to the three-quarter brickbat provided at the quoin in each and every alternate stretcher course.

7) Garden wall bonds

This type of bond is used for the construction of garden walls, boundary walls,   compound walls, where the thickness of the wall is one brick thick and the height does not exceed 2 meters.

This type of bond is not so strong as compared to Engish bond, but it is more attractive.

Due to this reason, it is sometimes used in the construction of outer leaves of cavity walls in the garden wall bond, the header course is provided only after three to five stretcher courses.

8) Zigzag bond

In this bond, the bricks are laid in zigzag position as shown in the figure. This bond is commonly used in making the ornamental panels in brick flooring. 

9) Raking bond

This type of bond is used in thick walls with an inclination of bricks to the direction of the wall.

Due to this, the longitudinal stability of thick was built in English bond is very much increased. This bond is introduced at certain intervals along with the height of the wall.

Special features of raking bond.

The bricks are arranged in an inclined direction, in the space between the external stretches of a wall. 

The raking slope or inclination should be in the opposite direction in alternate courses of raking bonds.

Raking bond is not provided in successive courses. It is provided in a regular interval of four to eight courses in height of the wall. The raking course is generally provided between the two stretcher courses of the wall.

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