Sprinkler irrigation is used where water is limited and crops need less amount of water for their sufficient growth. There are many advantages and disadvantages to sprinkler irrigation.
What is Sprinkler irrigation?
Sprinkler irrigation is a type of irrigation system which is similar to natural rainfall. In this system, water is distributed by using pumps through a system of pipes. The water is then sprinkled up in the air. The sprinkled water forms a small drop and falls over the land.
Sprinkler irrigation advantages and disadvantages are discussed below.
Major parts of Sprinkler irrigation system
- Pumping station
- By-pass valve
- Fertilizer tank
- Filtration system
- Pressure gauges
- Control valves
- HDPE / PVC pipes
- QRC pump connector
- Sprinkle nozzles
- Service saddle
Types of Sprinkler irrigation system
- Low volume sprinklers: This is a type of sprinkle irrigation system in which precipitation rate (mm/hour) is less than 13.
- Medium Volume Sprinkler: This is a type of sprinkle irrigation system in which precipitation rate (mm/hour) is between 13 – 25.
- Large volume sprinkler (Rain gun): This is a type of sprinkle irrigation system in which precipitation rate (mm/hour) is above 25.
Applications of Sprinkler irrigation
- Sprinkler irrigation is useful for:
- Agriculture purpose
- Industrial and residential purpose
- Sprinkler irrigation can also be used on uneven lands that lack sufficient water and also on sandy soil.
Crops which are suitable under sprinkle irrigation system:
|Crops||Water-saving (%)||Yield increase (%)|
Now let us discuss about Sprinkler irrigation Advantages and Disadvantages.
Sprinkler irrigation advantages
- Sprinkler irrigation is suitable for all types of the field except heavy clay soil.
- The water is sprinkled uniformly all over the area with high efficiency.
- There will be less loss of land which provides a larger area for cultivation.
- The loss of water will be minimum when sprinkle irrigation is used.
- The measurement of distributed water can be measured accurately and easily.
- This system is mechanized and automatic. Therefore, the high and frequent application is possible.
- Sprinkle system reduces conveyance loss by eliminating water conveyance channels.
- This system helps to reduces soil compaction.
- This system is suitable for undulating land.
- This system helps us by reducing labour cost.
Sprinkler irrigation Disadvantages
- Sprinkle system has a high operating cost.
- When there is a lot of wind in the area that has a sprinkler system for irrigation, water will drift.
- There will be a need for a stable water supply.
- Sprinkle water system may be affected by saline water.
- Water used in this system must be free from sand, debris and a large amount of salt.
- Sprinkle system is energy-intensive operation as high pressure is required to distribute water uniformly all over the area and the pump needs to be rotated.
Sprinkle system has various disadvantages. However, the advantages outweigh the disadvantages. This system is efficient and easy to work with and also increases the yield of the crops with a significant decrease in water usage.
This system is suitable for any type of land and can also be used in lawns and gardens.
Note: The drop sizes of sprinkles should be between 0.5 and 4 mm. This is because if the drop sizes are large than that, it can damage crops as well as soils. Drop sizes can be controlled using small pressure and nozzle.
I hope this article remains helpful for you.
Happy Learning – Civil Concept
Civil Engineer – Sushmita Niraula