Complete Parts of a building in Construction | Sub, and Super-structure

Parts of a building can be divided into two general categories:-

  1. Substructure
  2. Superstructure

Sub-structure:- The portion of a building situated underneath the surrounding ground is known as sub-structure. It includes foundation, footing, Base beam, soling, etc.

Super-structure:- The portion which is situated above the ground level is called super-structure. It includes a column, beam, wall, slab, roof, etc.

The parts of a building can be further classified as under

Complete Parts of a building in Construction | Sub-structure, and Super-Structure


Foundation is the lowest part of a structure below the ground level which transfers all the loads (dead load, live load, etc) to the soil. It should be strong enough to carry all the load of the superstructure.


The portion of a building between the ground surrounding the building and the top floor just above the ground is called plinth. Plinth is provided to prevent the surface water from entering the building.

DPC (Damp Proof Course)

DPC stands for the damp proof course is a layer of water materails like asphalt, bitumen, waterproof cement etc on which the wall are constructed.


Walls are the vertical members on which the roof finally rests. Wall are provided to devide the floor space in the desired pattern. Wall provides privacy, security and protect from the sun, rain, wind, cold etc.


The column is the isolated load-bearing member which carries the axial compressive load of a structure. It transfers the load to the foundation and finally to the ground.


The beam is the horizontal load-bearing structure that transfers a load of the slab to the column. It connects all the columns and slab to make a frame structure that can bear a huge amount of load and withstand even an earthquake.


Floors can be defined as flat supporting elements dividing a building into different levels (i.e first floor, second floor, etc) to creat more accommodation on a given land. They provide a firm and dry platform for people and other items like furniture, equipment, stores etc.

Doors, Window and Ventilators

Doors are provided as a barrier secured in an opening left in a wall to access the building, room or passage.

Wndows are the opening of wall to enter light, fresh air etc.

Ventilater os the small opening of uppur portion of wall to circulate hot and cold air to keep room temperature cool.


Complete Parts of a building in Construction | Sub, and Super-structure

The lintel is a cuboidal block of concrete or metal that is placed at the wall opening above the door and window. It supports the portion of the wall above the wall opening.


Complete Parts of a building in Construction | Sub-structure, and Super-Structure

The structure comprising a number of steps arranged in a series connecting one floor to another is known as stairs. Stairs are used to access various floors of the building.


A roof is the topmost part of a building which covers the space below and protect from rain, snow, the wind, etc.

Building Finish

This is the final stage of building construction. Building finishes include items like plastering, pointing, washing, varnishing, painting, distempering etc.

It is generally done as covering of building structure to prevent from weather, temperature, as well as to give the aesthetic look of the buildings.

Building Services

Building services include services like water supply, drainage, lighting, sanitation, electricity, acoustics, ventilation, heating, air conditioning, fire detection, and control, etc. These services create a comfortable and reliable working environment for the people living inside the building.

I hope this article on “Parts of Building” remains helpful for you.

Happy Learning – Civil Concept

Contributed by,

Civil Engineer – Ranjeet Sahani

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"Structural Engineer" with over 5 years of experience in estimation, structural design, and surveying. I am passionate about using my skills to create safe and sustainable structures. I am also a keen writer, and I enjoy sharing my knowledge and experiences with others.

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