Bricks is defined as a structural unit of rectangular shape & specified size which is made of suitable types of clay by molding, drying, and burning.
Even at the moment, brick is the most basic material for common construction throughout the world. Brick is most popular in construction because of their local &cheap availability, durability, strength, reliability & insulating property against heat and sound.
Types of Bonds in Brick
Bonding in bricks is made in such a way no vertical joint of 1 course is strictly over the one below. This means it overlaps & breaks the joints below.
1) Stretcher bond:- Stretcher bond is one within which all the bricks are laid in such a way that stretchers are on the faces of walls. The length of the brick wall is along the direction of the wall. The thickness of the wall is half brick (i.e. 5-inch wall) .example; partition walls.
2 Header bond:- Header bond is defined as the bond in which all the bricks are laid as headers on the faces of walls. Wall thickness of the wall is one brick.
3) English bond:- This is often the most typically used bond, for all wall thicknesses. This bond is taken into account to be the strongest. Alternate courses of headers & stretchers are used in English bonds. During this bond, the vertical joints of the header courses come over each other. Similarly, the vertical joints of stretcher courses also come over each other.
4) Flemish bond:- In this type of bond, each course is comprised of alternate header and stretchers. At the corner, every alternate course starts with a header (i.e. quoin header). Quoin closer is placed next to the quoin header in alternate courses to develop the face lap.
5) English cross bonds:- This is the revision of the English bond, used to increase the appearance of the wall. Special features of this bond are as follows:
Alternate courses of headers and stretchers are provided as in the English bond. Quoin closers are placed coming to quoin headers.
A header is introduced next to the quoin stretchers in every alternate stretcher course.
6) Dutch bonds:- This is another modified form of the English bond. In this bond, the corners of the wall strengthened. Following are the features of this type of bond:
Alternate courses of headers and stretchers are provided as in the English bond. Every stretcher course starts at the quoin with a three-quarter bat.
In every alternate stretcher course, a header is placed next to the three-quarter brick bat provided at the quoin.
7) Garden wall bonds:- This type of bond is used for the construction of garden walls, boundary walls, and compound walls, where the thickness of the wall is one brick thick and the height does not exceed 2 meters.
8) Zigzag bond:- In this bond, the bricks are laid in a zigzag position. This type of bond is used in making ornamental panels in brick flooring.
9) Raking bond:- This bond is generally used in thick walls. The bonding bricks are put at an inclination to the direction of the wall in this bond. The features of the raking bond are as follows.
The raking or inclination should be in opposite direction in alternate courses of raking bond. Raking bond is not provided in successive courses.
Q) How to use a brick jointer?
A brick jointer is defined as a finishing tool designed to smoothen the mortar joints between the bricks.
Some guidelines are given below for using a brick jointer.
Step 1 – Guide and smooth:- Guide the back of the tool along the mortar joint between the bricks.
Use the curved portion of the tool to smooth out the mortar joint.
Step 2 – Work your way down:- Start at the highest of the wall and work downward, so falling dust & debris doesn’t affect the freshly-jointed work.
Don’t cut corners:- Extra care has taken when corners are reached in order that the mortar joins up neatly and also the regular curvature is maintained.
Don’t joint vertically over horizontally:- You should not use a jointing tool to make a straight joint vertically across horizontal joints.
Joint internal angles alternatively:- Internal angle joints should be formed alternately from the left & right across the vertical joint. The direction should alternate as you progress down the wall; this may make sure the longevity of the mortar in a region.
Step 3 – Check each line is level:- Throughout construction, confirm each line of brick is in level.
Step 4 – Vertical first:- Joint vertical joints first.
These may also be referred to as: the ‘end joint’, ‘head joint’, ‘cross joint’, or ‘perpendicular joint’.
Step 5 – Horizontal second:- Joint horizontal joints second. These might also be referred to as: ‘bed joints’.
Step 6 – Remove excess mortar:- Cut off the excess mortar with the help of a trowel.
Step 7 – Brush brickwork:- Brush the brickwork after jointing by using a soft brush or broom.